The slipping of release dates is nothing new in software development; it can, and does, happen with some frequency, for a whole assortment of reasons. That said, with an aim towards increasing the transparency with which the MAME team operates, we have taken the unprecedented step of announcing it, and issuing a (hopefully) reasonable explanation as to why.
The simple, and non-technical, reason for this decision is that the overall stability of the codebase, after some major changes under the hood in order to rectify technical debt after the release of MAME 0.226, is not where we would like it to be. As with many projects, we have a boilerplate set of tests which are run on a regular basis. When any major change to the core codebase occurs, there is the chance for instability – for reasons which will be clear in the more technical description to follow, the change was downright guaranteed to cause issues, despite the overall benefits once these issues are rectified. The metrics that have come from those tests indicate that the rate at which we are burning through regressions is not such that we can be reasonably assured of having a stable build by the time that it is necessary to have one to maintain a monthly release cadence.
The Technical Background’s Background
The following explanation assumes that the reader is a technically-apt coder, but is more experienced with languages that have automatic memory management, such as Java or C#. This section is intended to go over already-known concepts, in order to provide a conceptual anchor point to contrast against the next section, which details manual memory-management. For those with an intimate knowledge of C or C++, it would be worthwhile to jump to the next section.
While there are many points to differentiate various languages, one of the more fundamental ones is the concept of memory management.
Back in the days of 8-bit and 16-bit systems, when applications were written in assembly language, RAM was critically limited, and you could rest assured that your software – and only your software – was running on the hardware, it was possible to simply choose which location in RAM mapped directly to which variable in your code.
With the advent of higher-level languages being viable for use on modern platforms, certain concessions had to be made, and one of them was the simple question of, “Where is my variable actually located?”
Side-stepping the concept of static, local, global, and other variable storage classes that would make this already-long post even longer, in this case the focus will be on memory allocation. An application generally starts up with a memory footprint equal to the amount of space needed for the code, as well as any variables that were able to be identified by the compiler. Since the majority of an application’s memory use cannot be predicted at compile time – consider a game which can spawn potentially-infinite swarms of enemies – the majority of languages allow for a concept called “allocation”.
Allocation is, at its most fundamental level, a contract between the program and the underlying operating system that it needs a block of memory, and that that memory will eventually be released. In the case of languages such as Java or C#, it’s up to the underlying runtime environment to identify when the memory will be released. In the case of other languages such as C or C++, this is something that is left up to the coder themself, for better or for worse.
The languages which provide a facility for automatically releasing memory allocations are known as “garbage-collected” languages. In a sense, the program is likened to a house that simply puts its trash out periodically for someone else to deal with. However, the language’s garbage collector should never be considered omniscient. Certain attitudes towards allocations can cause the garbage collector to spend an inordinate amount of time cleaning up after the coder, much like a real garbage collector if a household were to put out hundreds of tiny bins, all with one article of trash.
Back to the subject of allocation rather than de-allocation, one important concept is that of how much hand-holding the allocator will give to the application. This is, typically, very much up to the application itself. More relevant, how it pertains to C and C++ is critically important here, and so it is where we’ll find ourselves in the next section.
(Technical) Background to the Front Again
C and C++, by virtue of allowing the coder to override the system allocator or deallocator, present said coder with a problem: How does one handle uninitialized memory?
There are various ways of handling this, but it largely boils down to three strategies upon successful allocation: Immediately handing over a pointer to the allocated block, the same but clearing the block to zero, or also the same, but clearing the block to a known non-zero value instead.
In all three cases, the calculus is one of performance. Clearing the allocation to any sort of consistent value is typically a good way of either avoiding issues or exposing them quickly, but incurs a significant performance penalty during periods of heavy allocator use. Within the latter scope, clearing to a zero value might seem like the logical solution, but doing so can obscure uninitialized pointers; any sort of null pointer safety checks in the execution path will of course be hit, so the coder might never even be aware that without a clearing allocator, the pointer would never have been initialized.
In the case of the former – not clearing anything at all – then it’s entirely unknown upfront what the values of various variables will be. They could be zero, they could be non-zero, they will simply be whatever resided in that block of RAM at the time it was handed over by the underlying operating system. In this case, these uninitialized variables can wreak havoc on the code’s functionality, and that is what we are facing here in MAME’s case.
For decades, MAME has always allocated memory and cleared it to a consistent value. With the advent of switching to C++ years ago, however, quite a number of devices – implementations of individual chips or peripherals – and drivers – collections of devices to emulate a specific system or platform – were typically converted to be class-based as quickly as possible. In so doing, people doing these bulk conversions often overlooked initializing class member variables within the class constructor, because the clearing allocator was the saving grace in that regard.
Clearly Benefiting Through Unclarity
With the release of MAME 0.226 out of the way, it was decided by our lead maintainer that the disadvantages of using a clearing allocator were outweighing the benefits. While it maintained a semblance of stability, it was largely illusory: The underlying devices and drivers still had issues, but they were being masked.
Meanwhile, this decision was holding back features that had been added to MAME over the years to further the stated goal of providing documentation. The massive overhead involved in clearing every allocation involved in instantiating every driver – such as is done when invoking the -listxml command, or the -validate command, or many others – was entirely unnecessary in these context.
With that in mind, the switch was thrown, and we moved over to using a simple non-clearing allocator. This has, unfortunately, had the side effect of throwing years of technical debt into sharp relief. While our automated testing has been able to catch many of the regressions, it’s not a perfect system.
Due to the sheer number of systems that MAME emulates, regression runs are allowed 10 seconds per system, and are only flagged if they either crash outright or end in a PNG screenshot or WAV output that has a binary difference from the last known-good point. Since this doesn’t even get past the initial power-on tests for a number of arcade games, it means that we don’t necessarily know if the systems will crash or exhibit incorrect behavior beyond that point.
What Does It All Mean?
As a team, we can’t in good faith put out a build this month without additional time for more testing and more fixes.
The result we’re hoping for is that this delay will result not just in a more stable experience for everyone, but a more responsive experience when interacting with MAME through the command line.
This isn’t a decision that is being taken lightly, but it is also something that we cannot hide from the general public. The previous time a release date slipped by any amount of time, it not only harmed public faith in our release process, but it raised no end of questions from fans who wanted more information.
Hopefully, this post will give more insight into not only what we’re doing, but how and why we're doing it.
In the event of any questions pertaining to this decision, please feel free to reach out to me (the author) personally via my Twitter account: @TheMogMiner.